Subscribe

Through the wonders of modern telegraphy, you may now receive updates from this site in your electro-mailbox. Simply enter your email address below:


Or subscribe via RSS.

 

Culinary French, A Glossary

  • a
    • à blanc: "white;" cooked, but not browned
    • à l’Alsacienne: in the manner of Alsace, usually refers to German-influenced braised meat and charcuterie dishes containing choucroute and/or potatoes
    • à l’Amoricaine: seafood cooked with olive oil, onions, tomatoes and wine (typically, lobster)
    • à la ancienne: old style, usually refers to braised beef
    • à l’Andalouse: in the manner of Andalusia, in southern Spain, usually refers to dishes containing red peppers, tomatoes and sausage or rice (e.g., sauce Andalouse, mayonnaise flavored and colored with tomatoes and red peppers)
    • à l’Anglaise: English style, usually refers to poached or boiled dishes, but also fried foods (especially fish) that have been rolled in breadcrumbs
    • à l’Argenteuil: applied to dishes containing asperge, asparagus
    • à la bonne femme: cooked in a simple, home-style manner; usually refers to poached fish, often sauced with lemon juice and white wine
    • à la Bordelaise: in the style of Bordeaux (e.g., sauce Bordelaise, reduced wine and stock, herbs, shallots, and a garnish of marrow)
    • à la broche: spit-roasted (en brochette, like shish kabob, cooked on a skewer)
    • à la carte: a style of meal selection in which the guests compose their own meals by selecting from the menu where each item is separately priced, or a menu of this type. (opposite of prix fixe)
    • à la clamart: applied to dishes garnished either with peas or with pea-sized potato balls
    • à la Conti: applied to dishes garnished with lentil purée, and, occasionally, with bacon
    • à la Crécy: applied to dishes garnished or prepared with carrots
    • à la diable: in the style of the devil, that is, spicy (sauce Espagnole, shallots, wine, vinegar and pepper--either black or cayenne)
    • à la Dubarry: applied to dishes garnished or prepared with cauliflower (e.g., créme Dubarry, purèe of cauliflower soup
    • à l’Espagnole: in the style of Spain (refers to dishes containing garlic, onions, tomatoes and sweet red peppers)
    • à la Flamande: in the Flemish style (refers to braised dishes containing cabbage, carrots, potatoes and turnips)
    • à la Florentine: in the style of Florence (refers to dishes served on a bed of spinach)
    • à la forestiére: of the forest (usually refers to dishes garnished with wild mushrooms)
    • à la jardiniére: of the garden, garnished with a variety of vegetables
    • à la Grecque: in the style of Greece (refers to cold appetizers cooked with lemon juice, olive oil and herbs--such as oregano and thyme)
    • à la impériatrice: as the empress likes it, sweetened or enriched with cream or custard (e.g., riz à la impériatrice, a rich rice pudding)
    • à l’Indienne: in the Indian style, refers to dishes containing curry powder, accompanied by rice
    • à la Lyonnaise: in the style of Lyons, refers to dishes garnished with fried onions (e.g., sauce Lyonnaise, demi-glace and reduced white wine, flavored with sautèed onions)
    • à la Madrilène: in the style of Madrid, refers to dishes cooked with tomatoes (e.g., Madrilène, consommè colored and flavored with fresh tomato juice)
    • à la Marengo: a dish created, supposedly, for Napoleon after the battle of Marengo -- chicken or veal, browned in olive oil, then braised with garlic, olives, onions, tomatoes and wine (sometimes brandy)
    • à la marinière: in the style of mariners, refers to shellfish dishes made with herbs and white wine
    • à la meunière: in the style of the miller's wife, refers to dishes of fish lightly floured and sautéed in butter (e.g., beurre meunière, a simple sauce of beurre noisette, lemon and parsley)
    • à la Milanaise: in the style of Milan, pasta coated with butter and Parmesan cheese, then sauced with tomatoes, ham, mushrooms, tongue and truffles
    • à la minute: cooked at the moment, prepared to order
    • à la mode: in the manner of some person[s] or place (e.g., boeuf à la mode, beef, marinated in red wine, then braised; tripes à la mode de Caen, braised tripe dish from Normandy)
    • à la Montmorency: in the style of Montmorency, a suburb of Paris, refers to dishes made, or garnished, with sour cherries
    • à la nage: "swimming," seafood poached in an aromatic broth
    • à la Niçoise: in the style of Nice, refers to dishes made with anchovies, garlic, olives and tomatoes (e.g., salade Niçoise, salad dressed à la Niçoise, containing haricot vert, hard-boiled eggs, onions and tuna)
    • à la Normande: in the style of Normandy, refers to seafood dishes garnished with mushrooms, shellfish and truffles (e.g., sauce Normande, veloutè enriched with butter, cream and egg yolk)
    • à l’os: on the bone
    • à la Périgourdine: in the style of Périgord, refers to dishes prepared or garnished with truffles
    • à la Polonaise: in the style of Poland, refers to dishes garnished with melted butter, browned breadcrumbs, chopped hard-boiled egg and mince parsley
    • à la Provençale: in the style of Provence, refers to dishes prepared with garlic, olive oil and tomatoes, and sometimes anchovies, olives and onions
    • à la Russe: Russian service, traditionally performed by setting an empty plate in front of each guest from their right side, then serving the food from platters from the guests' left side
    • à la serviette: served on a fancy folded napkin on china
    • à la zingara: in the style of the gypsies, refers to dishes garnished with chopped ham, mushrooms, tongue and truffles--flavored with Madeira, tarragon and tomato.
    • à point: perfectly cooked food (rare, when referring to steak)
    • abaisse: a thin layer of pastry, undercrust
    • abats: organ meats (other than poultry giblets); (also abattis, poultry giblets)
    • aboyeur: expediter, person who relays orders from front of the house to appropriate stations in the kitchen, then checks plates as they go out to dining room
    • abricot: apricot
    • acerbe: bitter; tart to the taste
    • affiné: matured (applied to cheese)
    • agneau: lamb
    • agrumes: citrus fruit
    • aiglefin: haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus
    • aïgo bouido: Provençal garlic soup served over pieces of bread (e.g., aïgo-sau d'iou, Provençal fish soup made with water and salt)
    • aigre: sour (e.g., aigre-doux, sweet-and-sour, or bitter-sweet; aigrir, to sour, as wine or milk)
    • aiguillette: "like a needle, long slender slivers of meat
    • ail: garlic (e.g., gousse d'ail, garlic clove; ail semoule, garlic ; aillè, flavoured with garlic)
    • aïoli: a Provençal garlic mayonnaise (served as part of the dish aïoli complet)
    • alevin: tiny fish of any species
    • alimentation: food (food, groceries, nourishment, nutrition)
    • allumette: matchstick; classic cut (one-eighth inch square, by one to two inches long), refers either to very thin fried potatoes or filled strips of puff pastry served as savory hors d'oeuvres
    • alose: a type of shad, smaller than a herring, Alosa fallax
    • amande: almond
    • amer: bitter (also acerbe) (e.g., amer picon, a vermouth-like digestif; amertume, bitterness)
    • Amoricaine: lobster butter added to tomato sauce (sometimes seen as Americaine)
    • amuse-gueule: cocktail snack (also amuse-bouche), a lagniappe given before the appetizer
    • ananas: pineapple
    • anchois: anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (e.g., anchoiade, anchovy purèe, Provençal purée made with garlic and olive oil, also known as anchoyade)
    • andouillette: small unsmoked sausage from Normandy (not to be confused with the larger, spicier, smoked Cajun sausage, andouille)
    • aneth: dill, Anethum graveolens
    • angélique: angelica, Angelica offininalis
    • anguille: eel
    • anis étoilé: star anise (also badiane), Illicium verum
    • aperitif: to open, the first drink offered
    • appareil: a prepared mixture, used on its own or as an ingredient in another preparation
    • appellation: governmentally defined wine region of France
    • apron: perch-like fish from the Rhône river, Zingel asper
    • arôme: aroma, flavor (also aromate, aromatic plant; herb; spice)
    • arrosé: sprinkled, moistened or basted
    • artichaut: artichoke
    • asperge: asparagus (e.g., botte d'asperges, a bundle of asparagus; pointe d'asperges, asparagus tips)
    • aspic: clear meat jelly
    • assaisonné: seasoned or seasoned with
    • assiette: plate, dish
    • au gratin: refers to dishes topped with bread crumbs and/or grated cheese, and browned in the salamander or broiler
    • au jus: served with natural juices
    • au lait: served with milk, like coffee
    • au naturel: served raw or unmodified
    • au plateau: served on a platter
    • aubergine: eggplant (e.g., aubergine farcie, stuffed eggplant)
    • aurore: dawn; Bechamel sauce colored a rosy pink with tomato purèe
    • avocat: avocado
    • avoine: oats (e.g., flocon d'avoine, rolled oats; gruau d'avoine, oatmeal porridge)
  • b
    • badiane: star anise (also anis ètoilè), Illicium verum
    • badigeonner: to coat, (with egg white, for example)
    • baguette: a long slender bread weighing 250 grams; the classic French bread
    • bain marie: a water bath, used to cook foods gently, by protecting from direct heat, either on the stove or in the oven
    • ballotine: boned, stuffed, rolled, tied and roasted meat served hot (also ballottine)
    • banane: banana
    • Banon: goat cheese wrapped in chestnut leaves; from Banon, in Provence
    • bar: seabass (also known as loup de mer), Dicentrarchus punctatus
    • barbe-papa: cotton candy
    • barbouillade: stuffed eggplant or eggplant stew from Provence
    • barbue: brill (a flat fish, Scophthalmus rhombus)
    • barquette: pastry shell in the form of a boat, used in hors d'oeurvres and patisserie
    • basilic: basil, Ocimus basilicum
    • bâtarde: French bread, a little bigger than a baguette
    • bâtonnet: stick, a classic knife cut, from two to two-and-a half inches long, with a quarter-inch square cross-section, like a French fry (also baton); also a French bread, a little smaller than a baguette
    • batterie de cuisine: the complete range of tools used in a French kitchen: pots, pans, knives, bowls, etc.
    • bavette: minute steak; the top or skirt of beef
    • baveux: moist, runny
    • Beaufort: cow's milk Gruyére cheese from Savoie
    • bécasse: woodcock, Scolopax rusticola
    • becassine: snipe, Gallinago gallinago
    • beignet: fried dough, a fritter
    • Bercy: butter flavored with lemon, marrow, parsley, salt, shallots, pepper and wine (also sauce Bercy, a velouté made with fish stock and shallots)
    • berlingot de Carpentras: candy
    • bette: beet (also betterave, beetroot; betterave rouge de Gardanne, a regional red beet; blette, white beet)
    • beurre: butter (e.g., beurre blanc, sauce made with reduced white wine and butter; beurre composé, compound butter; beurre manié, butter, worked together with flour, for used as a thickener by sauciers; beurre noir, browned butter, seasoned and used as a sauce; beurre rouge, sauce made with red wine and butter)
    • biche: female deer
    • bien cuit: cooked well done
    • bien fait: matured (applied to cheese, e.g., bien persillé, mature blue cheese)
    • bière: beer
    • bigarade: bitter orange (e.g., sauce bigarade, classic brown sauce flavored with bitter orange, usually served with duck)
    • bigarreau Pélissier: a regional cherry
    • billi-bi: soup made with mussels steamed in white wine, strained, enriched with cream and egg yolks; originally served without the mussels, but more commonly garnished with the unshelled mussels today
    • biscotin d'Aix: cookie
    • blanc: white; (e.g., blanc d'blancs: white wine made from white grapes; blanc de noirs: white wine made from red; blanc d'oeuf: egg white; fromage blanc, white cheese; vin blanc, white wine)
    • blanchaille: tiny fish, whitebait (like alevin or poutine, fry of any of a number of species)
    • blanchir: to blanch
    • blé: wheat; (e.g., germe de blé, wheat germ; blé noir, buckwheat)
    • bleu: blue cheese; (e.g., bleu d'Auvergne, blue cow's milk cheese from Auvergne; bleu de Bresse, blue cow's milk cheese created to compete with gorgonzola; bleu de Quercy, blue cheese from Aquitaine) ; also refers to meat cooked rare, but not a rare as saignant
    • blonde de Nice: a regional orange from Nice
    • blondir: to cook onions until transparent, without browning them
    • bocal: a deep narrow-topped bowl, made of glass or earthenware, used for canning preserves
    • boeuf: beef (e.g., boeuf Bourguinon, braised beef, marinated in pinot noir, and garnished with tiny boiled onions and small mushrooms)
    • boisson: beverage or drink
    • bonne femme: "good wife," uncomplicated, home-style cooking Bordelaise: sauce made with demi-glace, red wine, shallots, butter and peppercorns; garnished with marrow
    • boucher: butcher, part of Garde Manger, cuts meats, bones and poultry (also boucherie, butcher shop)
    • bouchon: a cork (e.g., bouchonné, corked--spoiled--wine)
    • boudin: a meat pudding, a forcemeat (e.g., boudin blanc, a light colored, and mildly-seasoned, sausage made of chicken or pork, often enriched with cream; boudin noir, a black pudding, sausage made of blood, often containing cereal products, such as rice or bread crumbs)
    • bouilli: boiled (e.g., bouillabaisse, a fish soup, traditionally from Marseilles); (bouillon, a broth, made from meat--as opposed to stock, which is made from bones; bourride, a fish soup like bouillabaisse, but more highly seasoned and thickened with egg yolk)
    • boulanger: baker (also boulangerie, bakery)
    • boule: a round loaf of bread, like a miche (also a scoop of ice cream)
    • bouquet garni: a small bunch of herbs, used to flavor sauces and stocks; often bay leaves, parsley and thyme--either tied together or in a sachet of cheesecloth, to make their removal easier (e.g., Bouquet de Marmite, a large bouquet made with leeks, celery and carrots, tied together and used in the marmite while making stocks
    • Bourguignonne: sauce made with demi-glace, burgundy wine, shallots, butter and peppercorns
    • boursault: triple cream cheese with a white rind, similar to boursin
    • bouteille: bottle
    • braisé: braised
    • brassadeau: scalded ring cake
    • brasserie: casual French eating establishment
    • brebis: female sheep
    • brie de Meaux: soft-ripened cow's milk cheese, from Ile de France
    • brioche: small bread made with butter-enriched yeast dough (e.g., brioche à tête, classic form for brioche, muffin-sized with a tapered fluted bottom)
    • brocoli: broccoli
    • brosme: cusk, Brosme brosme
    • brouillade: Provençal scrambled eggs
    • brousse du Rove: fresh goat cheese, made with milk from a breed of goat intended for meat
    • brousse du Var: fresh sheep-milk cheese from Var
    • broyé: crushed, ground or pounded
    • brûlé: burned, singed (e.g., créme brûlé, custard with a burned topping of caramelized sugar; brûlot, burnt brandy)
    • brunoise: fine dice
    • brut: very dry sparkling wine
    • büche de noël: Christmas cake in the form of a Yule log
    • bûcheron: soft mild goat cheese
  • c
    • Cabécou: tiny cheeses from Aquitaine or Languedoc, usually made with goat's milk, but sometimes with milk from cows or sheep
    • cabillaud: cod, Gadus morhua (e.g., morue, salt cod; brandade de morue, Provençal purèe of salt cod, flavored with garlic and olive oil
    • cacahouéte: peanut
    • cachat: strong goat or sheep cheese from Mount Ventoux, in Provence; sometimes kneaded with eau de vie, olive oil or wine--in which case it is known as fromage fort; (e.g., cacheille, cachat that has been mixed with cream and allowed to ferment)
    • cade: a kind of pancake from Nice-Toulon
    • cajou: cashew (also noix d'acajou)
    • calisson d'Aix: almond-paste candy
    • calmar: squid
    • camembert: soft-ripened cow's milk cheese from Normandy
    • canapé: cold hors d' oeuvre on a piece of toast, bread or cracker
    • canard: duck (also caneton, duckling)
    • cantal: pressed cheddar-like cheese made with uncooked cow's milk in Auvergne
    • capitainne: captain in French service
    • câpres: capers, Capparis spinosa
    • capucine: nasturtium, Tropaeolum majus
    • cardon: cardoon
    • carotte: carrot
    • carrelet: Plaice, a flat fish, Pleuronectes platessa
    • carte des mets: à la carte menu in French (also carte des vins, wine list)
    • carvi: caraway, Carum carvi
    • cassoulet: classic French dish of white beans, slowly cooked with an assortment of meats--such as sausage, pork, and duck or goose confit (also cassoulette, a small individual baking dish, like a ramekin)
    • caudiére: a seafood stew containing onions and mussels (also caudrée)
    • cébette: leek-like vegetable; shredded for salads or eaten raw in Provence
    • céleri: celery (also fougére musquèe); (also céleri bâtarde, lovage)
    • cerfeuil: chervil, Anthriscus cerefolium
    • cerise: cherry
    • champignon: mushroom (e.g., aux champignons, containing or garnished with mushrooms)
    • Chaource: Camembert-like cow's milk cheese from Champagne region
    • chapelure: bread crumbs
    • chapon de mer: fish used in bouillabaisse (also known as rascasse rouge), Scorpaena scrofa
    • chapon: capon (term also refers to a crust rubbed with garlic)
    • charcuterie: kitchen used for preparation of sausages, terrines, pâtés and smoked meats (also charcutiére, in the style of the butcher's wife, grilled meat with sauce Robert, garnished with julienne of cornichons)
    • Chartreuse: yellow or green herbal liqueur, often served as a digestif
    • chaud-froid: cooked, then chilled, meats--covered with aspic that is often elaborately decorated
    • chef de partie: in the Brigade system, the chef who is in charge of a station ( a line cook); (e.g., chef de rang, front waiter; chef de salle, head waiter; chef de vin, wine steward--sommelier)
    • chemisé: literally, a shirt, refers to foods (like chaud-froid) that are coated or wrapped (also en chemise)
    • chevreau de lait: baby goat
    • chichi-frégi: a beignet
    • chicorée frisée: chicory lettuce (endive frisée)
    • chiffonade: "like rags," knife cut for herbs and vegetables, very fine narrow shreds
    • Choron: sauce made by coloring Hollandaise or Bèarnaise with pureed tomato
    • chou: cabbage (e.g., chou-blanc, white cabbage; choucroute, sauerkraut; chou de Bruxelles or chou-chou, brussels sprout; chou-fleur, cauliflower; chou-rouge, red cabbage; chou pointu de Châteaurenard, a regional cabbage)
    • choux: rough puff pastry
    • ciboule: scallion (ciboulette, chives)
    • cigale de mer: regional shellfish, something like a small spiny lobster, Scyllarides latus
    • citre: a regional watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, used for making jam
    • citron: lemon (e.g., citron de Menton, a regional lemon)
    • citrouille: pumpkin
    • clafouti: cobbler-like dessert from Limousin region
    • cloche: unglazed dome-shaped ceramic lid used in bread baking
    • clouter: to stud something with vegetables or cloves
    • coco rose: small white bean, marked with pink veins
    • cocotte: a tight-lidded casserole of glazed ceramic (e.g., en cocotte, a dish cooked in such a casserole)
    • coeur à la créme: molded, heart-shaped dessert of cream cheese, créme fraiche and whipped cream, usually served with fresh berries
    • coing de Provence: quince
    • colorer: to add an ingredient, or to pass over or through heat to color
    • commis: apprentice
    • compote: cooked fruits, in syrup
    • Comté: cow's milk Gruyére cheese from Franche-Comté
    • concassé: finely chopped or ground (typically peeled, seeded, and chopped tomato)
    • concombre: cucumber
    • confisseur: patissier who specializes in preparation of candies and fancy mignardise
    • confit: meats, such as duck, goose or pork, that has been preserved by being salted and slow-cooked in its own fat, then sealed under a layer of melted fat (e.g., confit de canard, preserved duck; confit d'oie, preserved goose)
    • confiture: fruit jam or preserve (e.g., confiture d'agrumes, citrus-fruit jam, marmalade; confiture de genièvre, preserve made of juniper-berries)
    • congre: conger eel, Conger conger (also known as fiélas)
    • consommé: completely clarified stock (double consommé is consommé that has been reduced to half its volume)
    • coq au vin: chicken, braised in red wine with salt pork or bacon, mushrooms and onions
    • coquille St. Jacques: scallops, served au gratin in their shells (coquille, the fluted shell of the scallop, or a dish of the same shape); (e.g., noix de coquille St. Jacques, the white muscle of the scallop)
    • cordon: a ribbon, a thin line of sauce surrounding a finished preparation
    • coriandre: coriander, Coriandrum sativum
    • cornet: horn-shaped pastry filled with whipped cream, or a similarly shaped slice of ham filled with cheese
    • cornichon: a very small, sweet-sour, pickled cucumber, often served with pâté
    • cotriade: a fish and potato chowder from Normandy
    • coulis: a thick purèed sauce made from vegetables or sometimes fruit
    • Coulommiers: young cow's milk Brie cheese from Ile-de-France (also known as Peit Brie or Brie de Coulommiers)
    • couper: to carve or slice (e.g., couper à travers, slicing charcuterie or pâtés; couper en tranches, slicing meat)
    • courge: green squash (e.g., courgette, small zucchini; courgette farcie, stuffed zucchini)
    • court-bouillon: seasoned broth or stock used for poaching fish
    • couscoussiére: special pot used for steaming cous cous
    • couvert: individual set-up for one guest (a cover); (e.g., couverture, hard glossy chocolate used for covering high-quality candies)
    • craqueliln de Carpentras: Provençal candy
    • crème: cream (e.g., crème aigre, sour cream; crème Anglaise, vanilla-flavored custard sauce, similar to crème pâtissiére or pastry cream, but without flour; crème Chantilly, sweetened whipped cream; crème épaisse, thick cream; fleurette, light cream--also crème liquide; crème fraîche, thick, slightly ripened heavy cream; double-créme, cheese containing a minimum of 60% fat; triple-crème, cheese containing a minimum of 75% fat)
    • crémeux: soft cheese (such as St. Marcellin)
    • crêpe: a thin pancake (e.g., crêpes suzette, a flaming dessert of crêpes with a sauce of butter and Grand Marnier)
    • crépinette: a patty of sausage, often lamb, wrapped in lacy covering of caul fat
    • crevette: shrimp (e.g., crevette améthyste, small violet-marked shrimp, Periclimenes amethysteus; crevette commune, common shrimp, Palemon serratus; crevette èpineuse, coral shrimp, Stenopus spinosus)
    • croquant: brioche cake
    • croque monsieur: ham and cheese sandwich, dipped in beaten egg, then sauteed in butter (also croque madame, a croque monsieur with added fried egg)
    • crottin de Chavignol: well-aged dry goat cheese from Sancerre
    • croûte: crust, a container for food made of fried or toasted bread (or sometimes potato) (e.g., en croûte, describes baked items wrapped in pastry)
    • crudités: small cuts of fresh vegetables offered with a dip, generally served as a stationery hors d'oeuvre
    • cuillerée: spoonful
    • cuire au four: bake in the oven (also cuire au gras, to cook with fat; cuire au maigre, to cook without fat)
    • cuisson: poaching liquid
  • d
    • dacquoise: dessert consisting of layers of meringue and cream filling
    • dariole: small round form for baking cylindrical desserts
    • darphin: shredded potatoes that have been formed into a flat round pancake and sauteèd in oil, then baked
    • daube: slow-cooked beef stew (also daubiére, a deep ceramic casserole use for preparing daube)
    • dauphine: puréed potatoes that have been mixed with choux batter, rolled into a ball and deep fried (e.g., Sole dauphine, deep-fried fillets, garnished with champignons, ecrivisses, truffes, and quenelles)
    • dauphinoise: thinly sliced potatoes typically layered with cream, butter, and cheese then baked. similar to the American scalloped potatoes
    • daurade royale: gilthead bream Sparus aurata
    • débarrasser: to clear off the table
    • décanter: to decant (also a wine carafe is used to separate the sediment from older wines and fortified wines)
    • découpage: to disjoint and portion; refers to poultry and flying game served via French service
    • dégustation: a tasting menu of wines and sometimes food, in which many dishes are offered in small portions
    • déjeuner: lunch (also petit déjeuner, breakfast)
    • délayer: to thin (as a sauce)
    • demi-glace: mixture of brown stock and reduced brown stock
    • demi-sec: half sweet, the term refers to a sweet sparkling wine
    • demitasse: half cup, a small cup used for espresso
    • dés: to dice (e.g., couper en gros dés, to dice; cut into chunks)
    • désosser: to bone (also desossage, deboning and filleting fish)
    • déssaler: to soak in water, to remove salt
    • détailler: to chop
    • digestif: a liqueur (often bitter with herbs), cordial or other high-alcohol drink served after a meal, supposedly as an aid to digestion
    • dinde: turkey (e.g., dinde, turkey hen; dindon, tom turkey; dindonneau, young turkey)
    • dorer: to gild, by brushing with a glaze of beaten egg before baking
    • doux: sweet, (champagnes labeled doux must contain a minimum of 5% sugar)
    • Du Barry: containing cauliflower, cràme Du Barry is a pureed cauliflower soup
    • duchesse: pureéd potatoes that have been enriched with egg yolks and piped from pastry bag
    • duxelles: a savory paste of minced mushrooms, herbs and shallots, sweated in butter
  • e
    • eau: water (e.g., eau de fleur d'oranger, orange-flower water made with Bigaradier oranges of Provence; eau de vie, distilled alcoholic beverage made from fruit, such as poire William or Framboise)
    • ébullition: boiling
    • écailler: to shell crabs, or to scale fish
    • échalote: shallot
    • échauder: to scald
    • écrevisse: crayfish or crawfish (e.g., l'écrevisse noble, noble crawfish, Astacus fluviatilis; l'écrevisse à pied blanc, white-legged crayfish, Astacus pallipes; l'écrevisse à pied rouge, red-legged crayfish, Astacus astacus)
    • écumer: to froth or foam
    • égoutter: to drain liquid (for example, from fresh cheese)
    • émietter: to crumble
    • émincer: to mince
    • emrelletes: a dessert garnish of green-tinted, mint-flavored peeled grapes
    • encornet: neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartrami
    • endive frisée: chicory lettuce (also known as chicorèe frisée)
    • enfourner: to put into the oven
    • entrecôte: between the ribs; a cut of meat from the front ribs and wing-end ribs -- sized from petite to double; carved like chateaubriand when large
    • entremet: between courses; simple sweet course of fruits, puddings, mousses, pies, Bavarians, tarts, simple cakes, sherbet, sorbet, ice cream, or any combination of the above
    • entremetier: in the Brigade system, the chef who cooks vegetables, starches, and sometimes soups
    • épépiner: to remove seeds
    • épice: spice (e.g., épices fines, fine spices, blend also known as épice Parisienne; quatre épices, four spices, blend used in charcuterie)
    • épinard: spinach
    • éplucher: to peel (also épluchage, peeling and cutting fruits)
    • epoisses: washed-rind cow's milk cheese from Burgundy
    • équeuter: to remove a tail (for example, the stem of a fruit)
    • essence de truffe: a concentrated flavoring made from truffle peeling steeped in fortified wine
    • estragon: tarragon, Artemisia Dracunculus 'sativa'
    • estouffade: stew; (also a brown stock made with veal and beef bones plus pork knuckle)
    • étaler: to spread evenly
    • étendre au rouleau: to roll flat (as dough)
    • étuver: to stew slowly, tightly covered (also étouffé, a dish--often Cajun--cooked in this manner)
  • f
    • faisander: to hang or age game
    • fait-tout: stew-pan, cooking pot (also faitout, faittout, marmite)
    • farci: stuffed (e.g., légumes farcis, stuffed vegetables)
    • farine: flour (e.g., farine de sarrasin, buckwheat flour)
    • faux-filet: sirloin steak
    • favouille: small green crab found in the Mediterranean, Carcinus maenas
    • fenouil: fennel, Foeniculum vulgare
    • fermier: a farm house cheese
    • feuilletage: in flaky layers (also pâtè feuilletée, puff pastry)
    • féve: fava bean (also févette, large lentil)
    • ficelle: long, very slender loaf of bread
    • figue: fig (e.g., figue de Tarascon, regional variety)
    • filet/fillet: tenderloin steak, the choice undercut of meat or fish served off the bone (e.g., filet de dinde, turkey ; filet mignon, the small choice end of tenderloin of beef--or sometimes veal or pork)
    • flambé: dramatic tableside preparation in which brandy or liqueur is poured over a food item, then set aflame to complete the cooking
    • flet: flounder, Platichthys flesus (also flètan de l'Atlantique, Halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus)
    • fleur de courgette: zucchini blossom
    • fleur de muscade: mace (also called macis), Myristica fragrans
    • fleur de sel: sea salt from the Camargue, Guérande or Noirmoutier
    • fleuron: a tiny crescent of baked puff pastry, used as a garnish
    • foie: liver (e.g., foie gras, fattened liver of goose or duck)
    • fondre: to melt (also fondu, melted)
    • fouet: whisk
    • fougasse: a type of bread (e.g., fougassette, an enriched bread)
    • fougère musquée: celery
    • fouler: to press with a pestle
    • four: oven
    • fourme d'Ambert: Stilton-like cow's milk cheese from Auvergne
    • fourré: filled, stuffed or creamed
    • fraise: strawberry (e.g., fraise de Carpentras or frais du Plan de Carros; fraise du bois, wild strawberry)
    • friandises: a little something extra, served after dessert -- similar to mignardises
    • fricassée: stewed poultry or white meats, with a white sauce
    • frites: deep-fried battonets of potato (French fries); (also friturier, fry station or the cook who works there)
    • froid: cold
    • fromage: cheese (e.g., fromage blanc, a soft white cheese like a thick yogurt; fromage de brebis, ewe's cheese, such as Roquefort; fromage de chévre, goat cheese; fromage de vache, cow milk cheese; fromage frais, soft white cheese; fromage rapè, grated cheese)
    • fruit confit d'Apt: candied fruit
    • fruits de mer: an assortment of seafoods
    • fumet: cooking liquid for fish, made with white wine and aromatics
  • g
    • galantine: boned, stuffed, rolled, tied and poached meat served cold
    • galette: a round, flat cake or tart
    • ganache: mixture of chocolate and heavy cream, used as a glaze or as base for truffles
    • garbure: a thick vegetable soup containing cabbage and potatoes
    • garde manger: the cold area of a kitchen where buffet items are prepared and stored, also refers to the items themselves; in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares cold foods, pâtés, also the category of such foods
    • gastrique: a reduced syrup of vinegar and caramelized sugar
    • gâteau: cake
    • gaufrette: potatoes, thinly sliced with a lattice cut on a mandoline, then deep fried
    • genièvre: juniper or gin (also genèvrier)
    • génoise: sponge cake
    • géranium odorant: rose geranium
    • germe de blé: wheat germ
    • germon: albacore, Thunnus alalunga
    • gibier: wild game
    • gigot: leg of lamb or mutton, usually roasted
    • girofle: clove, Eugenia caryophyllata
    • girolle: chanterelle mushroom, Cantharellus cibarius (also trompette de la mort, black chanterelle or black trumpet, Craterellus cornucopioides)
    • glacé: glazed or iced, refers to items covered in sugar, or frozen (e.g., glace, ice cream; also glace de viande, meat stock reduced to a syrup-like consistency)
    • gougère: hors d'oeuvre of baked choux pastry, flavored with Gruyére
    • goujonette: a battered and deep-fried strip of fish filet
    • gousse: clove (of garlic); or pod (of a bean or pea)
    • goûter: to taste (hence goût, taste)
    • grain: seed (such as grape or mustard); or a coffee bean (also graine, a plant seed)
    • granité: a sweet ice with no fat or egg
    • gratin: a baked dish, often topped with cheese and/or bread crumbs, then browned under a salamander or broiler (also gratinée, French onion soup, topped with a crouton and cheese, and browned under a salamander or broiler)
    • grenade: pomegranate, Punica granatum (also grenade de Provence, a regional variety)
    • grillade: grilled (also grillardin, the grill station, or the chef who prepares grilled items)
    • grillettes: garnish of crisply fried bits of rich meat, such as duck or pork
    • griofle: gurnard (also grondin and galinette); (e.g., grondin gris, gray gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus; grondin perlon, red gurnard, Trigla lucerna)
    • guéridon: a rolling service cart
  • h
    • hareng: herring, Clupea harengus
    • haricot: bean (e.g., haricot blanc, white bean; haricot coco rose d'Eyragues, small local bean--also coco rose; haricot rouge, kidney bean; haricot vert, green bean)
    • herbes: herbs (e.g., Herbes de Provence, a blend of marjoram, oregano, rosemary and summer savory; sometimes includes basil, fennel, sage, thyme and/or lavender)
    • Hollandaise: emulsion-type sauce prepared with egg yolks, peppercorns, lemon juice, vinegar and butter
    • homard: lobster, Homarus gammarus
    • hors d'oeuvres: outside the work; traditionally a warm appetizer, but often includes any tidbit served before the meal
    • huile: oil (e.g., huile d'olive, olive oil)
    • île flottante: floating island, sometimes refers to a dessert better known as oeufs à la neige, but also to an island of Genoise, flavored with liqueur, garnished with crème chantilly and nuts, floating in a lake of crème Anglaise
  • i
    • ile flottante: "floating island," meringue floating in a pool of crème Anglaise
  • j
    • jambon: ham (also jambonneau, knuckle of ham)
    • jardinière: a mixture of vegetables
    • jaune d'oeuf: egg yolk
    • julienne: very thin strips of food of varying lengths, one-eighth-inch in cross-section; fine julienne are one-sixteenth-inch in cross section
    • jus: juice from roasting (e.g., au jus, meat, and sometimes fish, served with its own juices; jus liè, thickened jus)
  • k
    • kaki muscat de Provence: persimmon
  • l
    • lagniappe: a little something extra; a Cajun term, referring to a small complimentary treat
    • lait: milk (e.g., lait cru, un-pasteurized milk; lait de noix de coco, coconut milk)
    • laitue: lettuce
    • langouste: spiny lobster, Panulirus spp. (also langoustine, prawn, Panulirus vulgaris)
    • langres: small brownish-orange cow's milk cheese, washed with brine and annatto; made in Champagne
    • langues du chat: cat's tongues, a thin oblong cookie, three inches in length, with a faint citrus scent
    • larder: to lard with strips of larding bacon, to enrich a piece of lean meat (also lardons, blanched strips of fried salt pork or bacon, similar to grillettes)
    • laurier: bay or laurel leaf, Laurus nobile
    • lavande: lavender (lavandin, hybrid lavender grown in Provence), Lavandula x intermedia
    • légume: vegetable in French cookery; in English, the term refers to member of the bean family
    • légumier: in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares vegetables for cooking and cooks vegetables
    • levain: leaven (or the leavener in bread)
    • levure: yeast (e.g., levure chimique, baking powder; levure de boulanger, baker's yeast)
    • liaison: a binder or thickener for sauces and soups--usually starch-based, but sometimes containing egg yolks, cream, blood or vegetable purèe (also liè, to lightly thicken)
    • liche: pompano, Trachinotus ovatus
    • liège: cork (the material, not a bottle stopper)
    • lieu jaune: pollock, Pollachius pollachius
    • limande-sole: lemon dab, a flat fish, Microstomus kitt; (also limande commune, common dab, Limanda limanda)
    • livarot: brown washed-rind cow's milk cheese from Normandy
    • lotte de mer: monkfish (also baudroie), Lophius pescatorius
    • louche: ladle
    • loup: sea bass (also known as bar commun, corvine and loubine), Dicentrarchus labrax
  • m
    • macédoine: mixed fresh fruits in liqueur-flavored syrup
    • madeleine: small cookie-like cake, shaped like a scallop shell
    • madère: a Madiera-enhanced sauce Espagnole
    • maïs: corn, maize
    • maître d': short for maître d' hôtel, literally, master of the house; the person in charge of the dining room; (e.g., maître d' butter or maître d' hôtel butter, compound butter flavored with salt, pepper and parsley, plus vinegar or lemon)
    • malaxer, pétrir: to knead dough, or to work butter
    • maltaise sauce: orange-flavored hollandaise sauce
    • mange-tout: "eat-it-all," a tiny fish (also pois mange-tout, eat-it-all peas, small tender young pea pods)
    • maquereau: mackerel, Scomber scombrus
    • marbré: marbled (also persillée in describing blue cheese)
    • marjolaine: sweet marjoram, Origanum majorana
    • marmite: ceramic cooking pot (e.g., petite marmite, small marmite-shaped pot used as a soup bowl; also a simmered dish, like a pot-au-feu)
    • Maroilles: strong flavored washed-rind cow's milk cheese from Flanders
    • marron: chestnut (e.g., marrons glacés, chestnuts in heavy syrup)
    • matelote: a fish stew containing eel
    • matignon: a kind of mire poix, containing carrot, celery and onion, plus leek, bacon or ham and sometimes mushrooms
    • mélisse: lemon balm, Melissa officinalis
    • melon: cantaloupe
    • menthe: mint, Mentha spp.
    • merlan: whiting (also merlan bleu, blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou), Merlangius merlangus
    • merlu: hake, Merluccius merluccius
    • mérou: grouper, Epinephelus marginatus
    • mesclun Niçois: mixture of different baby lettuces
    • miche: a round loaf of bread, formed in a basket
    • mie: the white part of the bread, minus the crust (e.g., mie de pain, white bread crumbs)
    • miel: honey
    • mignardises: the sweetest of the sweets, served with coffee including; truffles, chocolates, caramels, dipped fruits and nuts, macaroons, mints, small cookies or pastries
    • mignonette: another name for medallion or noisette--a disk-shaped cut of lamb (also poivre mignonette, crushed white pepper)
    • mille-feuille: thousand layers; a filled dessert made with two sheets of puff pastry
    • mirepoix: aromatic mixture of diced vegetables; classically, two parts onion to one part each of carrot and celery (Cajun mirepoix substitutes green pepper for the carrots, white mirepoix substitutes leek for the carrot)
    • mise en place: to put everything in its place; a set-up of required items or ingredients
    • mitonner: to simmer; cook slowly, or prepare very carefully (also mijoter)
    • moelle: bone marrow
    • mont blanc: pureed and sweetened chestnuts
    • monter: to mount, or to aerate by whisking (e.g., monté au beurre, enriching a sauce by whisking in cold butter at the last minute)
    • morbier: pale yellow cow's milk cheese from the Jura Mountains; curd from morning and evening milkings are separated by a thin layer of ash
    • Mornay: Bechamel sauce enriched with egg yolks, Parmesan, and Gruyére
    • mortier: mortar (heavy bowl for grinding with a pestle)
    • mouiller: to cover with liquid, stock, wine, etc., or to add a specific amount of liquid as directed in the recipe.
    • moulé: molded
    • moules: mussels (e.g., moules mariniéres, mussels cooked in white wine with onion or shallots), Mytilus galloprovincialis
    • moulin à poivre: pepper mill
    • mousse: foam, airy sweet or savory foods (also mousseline, sauce or light forcemeat that is lightened through the addition of whipped cream or beaten egg whites)
    • moutarde: mustard
    • mouton: mutton
    • muge: mullet, Mugil cephalus
    • munster: rich yellow cow's milk cheese from Alsace
    • mûr: ripe
    • mûre: blackberry (also mûrier noir, fresh blackberry)
    • muscade: nutmeg, Myristica fragrans
  • n
    • napper: to coat or cover (also nappé, tablecloth, or the description of a food item covered with sauce; napperon, top cloth)
    • navarin: a lamb or mutton stew
    • navet: turnip
    • navette: a boat-shaped cookie from Marseille and Provençal
    • nèfle du Japon: medlar fruit, Eriobotrya japonica
    • neige: frost, (e.g., battre en neige, to beat egg whites stiffly to a frosty consistency)
    • noisette: hazelnut (also a small tender disk cut from the loin or rib of beef, lamb of veal; beurre noisette, browned butter; pommes noisette, tournèed potatoes, browned in butter)
    • noix: nut, specifically walnut (also noix de coco, coconut; noix de coquilles Saint-Jacques, the white flesh of the scallop; noix de muscade, nutmeg)
    • nonpareil: unparalleled, without equal, in the U.S., a sprinkle-covered chocolate candy--but in France, the smallest and most perfect capers.
    • nougat blanc: white nougat candy (also nougat noir, dark nougat candy)
    • nouille: noodle
    • nourriture: food
  • o
    • oeuf: egg (e.g., oeufs brouillés, scrambled eggs; oeuf à cheval, steak or hamburger topped with a fried egg; oeuf à la coque, egg, boiled, or steak or hamburger topped with a fried egg; oeuf à la moelle, poached egg, with sauce made with white-wine and bone marrow; oeufs à la neige, a dessert of beaten egg whites poached in milk, served with a caramelized vanilla sauce; oeuf dur, hard-boiled egg; oeuf dur le plat, fried egg; oeuf pochè, poached egg)
    • oie: goose
    • oignon: onion
    • ombre commun: freshwater grayling, Thymallus thymallus
    • oreillette: a sweet fritter
    • orge: barley
    • origan: oregano, Origanum vulgare
    • ortie: nettle, a wild potherb, Urtica dioca
    • oseille: sorrel, Rumex acetosa
    • oursin violet: sea-urchin, Paracentrotus lividus
  • p
    • paillard: thinly sliced veal or beef for sautèing--a scallop or schnitzel
    • pain: bread (e.g., pain bouilli, a regional rye bread; pain d'Aix, a regional raised bread; pain de mais, corn bread; pain de seigle, rye bread; pain perdu, French toast)
    • pamplemousse: grapefruit
    • pan bagnat: a dish of bread filled with salade Niçoise
    • panade: starch-based thickener used with forcemeats, or a soup thickened with a panade
    • panisse: fried chick-pea flour beigne
    • papillote: paper decoration for ends of ribs on a roast (e.g., en papillote, cooked in a parchment package)
    • parfum: flavor (usually applied to ice cream)
    • Paris-Brest: pâte choux filled with praline-flavored buttercream
    • parmentier: refers to containing, or garnished with, potatoes
    • passoire: colander (e.g., une passoire conique, china cap or chinoise)
    • pastèque: watermelon
    • pâte: paste, dough used for baking, or the interior of cheese (e.g., pâte à choux, rough puff pastry, like that used for cream puffs; pâte brisèe, short pastry, pie dough; pâte feuilletèe, puff pastry; pâte cuite/dure, hard cheese; pâte molle, soft cheese; pâte sucrèe, sweetened pâte brisèe, often enriched with egg; pâte verte, green pasta; pâtisserie, pastry, a pastry shop, or the art of making pastry; pâtissier, a pastry chef)
    • pâté: mixture of ground meats formed in a terrine and sliced
    • patience: a Provençal cookie
    • pavé: thick prime steak, grilled; or a dessert shaped like a paving stone; or a cold dish, in the form of a square, covered with aspic
    • pêche : peach (e.g., pêche Melba, dessert of cold poached peaches, vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce; pêche sanguine de Manosque, red-violet variety of blood peach from Alpes-de-Haute-Provence)
    • Pelardon: small goat cheese from Auvergne and Languedoc
    • peler: to peel
    • Périgourdine: demi-glace with foie gras purée; garnished with truffles
    • persil: parsley (also persillade, minced garlic and parsley; persillée, marbled green- or blue-veined cheese, so-called because of its resemblance to a garnish of minced parsley), Petroselinum crispum
    • petit épeautre: a regional wheat
    • petit gris: small edible snail, Helix aspersa aspersa
    • petit pan: roll
    • petit salé: salt pork
    • petite friture: any small items (tiny fish, shrimp, vegetables, squid rings, etc.), lightly battered and quickly fried
    • petits fours: small, square, glazed and decorated form of mignardise
    • pétrir, malaxer: to knead (as dough); (also pétrissage, kneading)
    • pieds et paquets: sheep tripe
    • pignon: pine nut
    • piler: to grind, crush (in a mortar)
    • pilon: drumstick, or poultry leg (term also refers to a pestle: the short thick grinding tool used with a mortar)
    • piment: red hot pepper, Capsicum annuum
    • pince: browning in fat, typically of tomato product in the making of brown stock
    • pintade: Guinea fowl (e.g., pintade farcie, stuffed Guinea fowl), Numida meleagris
    • pipérades: Basque-influenced dishes, containing green peppers and tomatoes, cooked in olive oil
    • pissaladiére: Provençal onion, olive and anchovy tarte
    • pissenlit: dandelion, Taraxacum officinale
    • pistache: pistachio
    • pistou: a Provençal garlic-basil sauce, simlar to pesto (sometimes used for basil itself)
    • plat: dish, plate (also plateau, platter)
    • pleurotte: oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus
    • poche: poach (also pocket or bag)
    • poire: pear (e.g., poire crémesine et martin-sec, a regional pear; poire Hèléne, vanilla-flavored poached pear, served with ice cream and chocolate sauce; poire William, pear eau de vie)
    • poireau: leek
    • pois: pea (e.g., petits pois, tiny peas; pois chiche, chick pea)
    • poisson: fish (also poissonier, chef responsible for fish dishes/appetizers)
    • poivre: pepper (e.g., sauce poivrade, demi-glace with pepper, mirepoix, herbs, red wine, and butter), Piper nigrum
    • poivron: bell pepper (e.g., poivron farci, stuffed pepper; poivron pimentè, chile pepper; poivron rouge, red bell pepper; poivron vert, green bell pepper)
    • polenta jaune: boiled cornmeal
    • pomme: apple (e.g., pomme de risoul et pointue de Trescléoux, a regional apple; pomme de terre, potato; pommes Anna, French version of rösti potatoes; pommes de terre de Pertuis, mid-season potatoes)
    • pompe à l'huile: an enriched bread
    • pompe de Noël: an enriched holiday bread
    • pont-l'Evêque: soft-ripened cow's milk cheese from Normandy
    • potager: in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares soup
    • pot-au-feu: boiled meat and vegetable dish
    • potiron: pumpkin (also potimarron, pumpkin variant, with slight chestnut flavor)
    • poulpe: octopus
    • pourriture noble: noble rot, mold responsible for the honey-like quality of dessert wines such as Sauternes, Botryis cinerea
    • pousse-café: cordial or brandy served with coffee
    • poussin: young hen
    • poutargue de Martigues: fish eggs
    • poutine: alevin, fry, young fish
    • praline: an almond-sugar mixture used as a filling in some pastries and candies; not the same as the American or Belgian pralines
    • printanier: a garnish of spring vegetables
    • prix fixe: a form of menu that offers a set, or limited, selection for a set price
    • Provençale: sauce consisting of shallots, garlic, white wine, tomato concassé, fines herbs, and butter
    • purée: smoothly ground or mashed food, often strained; the process of making a purée
  • q
    • quadrillage: a lattice-like top on a tart (with strips of pastry) or pizza (with anchovies)
    • quart: quarter (e.g., un quart de vin, a carafe with 25 cl of wine; quartier, a segment or quarter of orange, lemon, melon, etc.)
    • quatre-épices: a blend of ground cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, pepper
    • quenelle: a light dumpling of fine forcemeat (generally, seafood, chicken or vegetables), used as a course in themselves, or as garnishes for other dishes
    • queue: tail
    • quiche: a savory tarte
  • r
    • ragoût: stew
    • raisin: grape (e.g., raisin sec, raisin)
    • ramollir: to soften
    • rascasse: hog-fish (fish used in bouillabaisse); (rascasse rouge, red scorpion fish, also known as chapon de mer), Scorpaena scrofa
    • ratatouille: a Provençal vegetable stew
    • ravioli: stuffed pasta
    • réchaud: hot plate, food warmer, cooking utensil used mostly for gueridon service
    • redresser: to plate and garnish dishes with food taken from pans, platters or bowls
    • rafraichir: to shock blanched food in ice-cold water
    • relevés: a form of appetizer--highly seasoned dishes that stimulate the appetite for the entrée
    • remouillage: "rewetting;" a secondary stock made from bones that have already been used to made stock
    • rémoulade: sauce consisting of Mayonnaise, capers, Dijon mustard, anchovies, and gherkins
    • restaurateur: owner or operator of a restaurant
    • revenir: to brown or soften
    • rillettes: a kind of potted meat, similar to pâté--but preserved with a layer of fat, like confit
    • rince-doigts: finger bowl
    • ris: sweetbreads (e.g., ris d'agneau, lamb sweetbreads; ris de veau, calf sweetbreads)
    • rissole: to brown, in fat, in a pan (e.g., rissole potatoes)
    • riz de Camargue: rice from the Camargue (southern Provence)
    • rocambole: Spanish garlic
    • rognon: kidney
    • romarin: rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis
    • roquefort: blue sheep's milk cheese from Combalou (Auvergne)
    • roquette: arugala, Eruca sativa
    • rôtir: to roast (also rôti, a roast or roasted item)
    • rôtisseur: in the Brigade system, the chef who prepares roast meats and poultry
    • rouget de roche: red mullet, Mullus surmuletus
    • rouille: garnish for Provençal dishes like Bouillabaisse, a paste of pounded garlic, hot red pepper and olive oil, thickened with breadcrumbs
    • roulade: a rolled and filled slice of meat, usually braised in stock or wine
    • roussir: to brown, singe
    • roux: slow-cooked mixture of fat and flour, used as a thickener for sauces, soups and stews (e.g., blonde roux, made with butter and cooked until golden; brown roux, made with butter of meat fat and cooked until golden brown; dark roux, made with lard and cooked until chestnut brown, used in Cajun cooking; white roux, made with butter and cooked only until flour loses its raw color)
  • s
    • sablé: shortbread cookie from Normandy
    • safran: saffron, Crocus sativus
    • saignant: cooked very rare
    • Saint André: triple cream cheese with white rind
    • Sainte-Germain: refers to dishes made, or garnished, with fresh green peas, either whole or purèed
    • Sainte-Maure: soft goat cheese from Touraine
    • Saint-Honoré: an airy version of créme patissiére, containing whipped cream or egg whites (e.g., gateau Saint-Honoré, a classic dessert consisting of caramel-coated cream puffs arranged in a ring on a base of pâte brisée, then filled with crème Saint-Honoré)
    • Saint-Marcellin: semi-hard cow's milk cheese from Lyon (originally made with goat's milk)
    • Saint-Nectaire: cow's milk cheese from Auvergne
    • Saint-Paulin: lightly pressed cow's milk cheese from Entrammes, in Normandy (also known by the commercial names, Port-Salut or port-du-Salut)
    • Saint-Pierre: John Dory, a flat fish, Zeus faber
    • salade: salad (e.g., salade composèe, a composed salad; salade de mesclun, a salad of lettuce, dandelion, chicory, watercress, herbs and rocket; salade niçoise, a salad of lettuce, tomatoes, olives, anchovies, tuna fish, bell peppers, hard-boiled eggs, potatoes, etc.)
    • salé: salted
    • salmis: ragoût of minced game, slowly cooked in wine
    • salpicon: cooked diced foods bound with a sauce, such as Béchamel or syrup or cream, and used as filling for hors d'oeurvres or other dishes
    • sard: sardine, Clupea sprattus, Sardina pilchardus or other small herring-like fishes
    • sarrasin: buckwheat
    • sarriette: savory (also sarriette des montagnes, winter savory, Satureja montana), Satureja hortensis
    • sauce Bèchamel: classic white sauce made with milk, flavored with onions and cloves, thickened with white roux (e.g., sauce Mornay, sauce Bèchamel enriched with Gruyére or Parmesan cheese, and sometimes stock and/or cream and yolks of eggs; sauce Soubise, sauce Bèchamel with puréed cooked onions)
    • sauce Espagnole: classic starch-thickened sauce made with brown stock, brown roux, herbs and tomato purèe (e.g., sauce Périgueux, sauce Espagnole with truffles and Madiera)
    • sauce Hollandaise: classic emulsion sauce made with butter, egg yolk and lemon juice (also sauce Béarnaise, Hollandaise with shallots, tarragon, wine and vinegar; sauce Maltaise, orange-flavored Hollandaise)
    • sauce marchands de vin: sauce for roasted meats, made with glace de viande, shallots, reduced red wine and black pepper, with butter, lemon and parsley
    • sauce Marguery: emulsion sauce made with a reduction of fish stock and white wine, thickened with butter and egg yolk
    • sauce Mayonnaise: classic emulsion sauce made with oil, lemon juice and egg yolk, and a tiny amount of mustard (also sauce verte, sauce Mayonnaise colored with a purée of blanched parsley, spinach or watercress)
    • sauce Robert: classic sauce made with demi glace, white wine and mustard; traditionally served with game
    • saucier: in the Brigade system, the person responsible for soups, stocks and sauces
    • saucisson: sausage, usually refers to a large smoked sausage (e.g., saucisse, small sausage; saucisse aux herbes ou au chou, fresh sausage made with meats, vegetables and herbs; saucisson d'Arles, regional dry sausage)
    • sauge: sage, Salvia officinale
    • saumuré: pickled
    • sauter: to cook quickly in a small amount of fat (also sauteuse, a slope-sided shallow sauté pan; sautoir, a straight-sided shallow sauté pan)
    • savarin: a ring-shaped dessert made of rum-soaked cake, filled with créme chantilly or fruit
    • saveur: flavor
    • scarole: endive
    • sec: dry (referring to goat cheese), or sweet (referring to wine)
    • seiche: squid, cuttle-fish, any member of the Illex, Loligo, or Sagittatus genera
    • sel: salt (e.g., gros sel, coarse salt; sel de céleri, celery salt; sel de marin, sea salt; sel et poivre, salt and pepper)
    • semence: seed
    • serpolet: wild thyme, Thymus serpyllum
    • serviette: napkin
    • singer: to dust an item with flour
    • socca: pancake made with chick-pea-flour (e.g., Socca de Nice, regional variation)
    • soigné: French term for service--literally caring or excellent
    • sole commune: common sole, Solea solea
    • sorbet: sherbert, frozen fruit juice or tea with sugar, an ice made without fat or egg yolk
    • soufflé: a light airy dish that is leavened by beaten egg whites (e.g., pommes soufflés, thin slices of potato, fried twice so that trapped steam inflates them)
    • soufre: sulfur
    • soupe: soup
    • sous chef: in the Brigade system, the chef who is second in command
    • spigol: a blend of spices, including -- and similar in use to -- safran
    • suce-miel d'Allauch: honey paste, caramelized sugar and oil
    • sucre: sugar
    • suprême: a chicken breast with skin and first joint of wing attached, or a segment of citrus fruit with membranes and seeds removed (also sauce suprême, sauce Veloutè enriched with stock, butter and cream, flavored with mushrooms)
  • t
    • table d'hôte: pre-set multi-course menu offered at a set price
    • tamis: sieve
    • tapenade: Provençal condiment made from anchovies, black olives, capers, lemon juice and olive oil pounded into a paste
    • tarte: pie (e.g., tarte tatin, an upside-down tart of caramelized apples or pears)
    • tartine: buttered bread
    • taureau de Camargue: beef from the Camargue (at the mouth of the Rhône)
    • telline: small, wedge-shaped clam (also known as haricot de mer), Donax denticulatas
    • terrine: glazed earthenware baking dish, usually deep and rectangular or oval in shape (also food cooked in such a dish)
    • thé: tea
    • thon: tuna (thon rouge, red tuna), Thunnus spp.
    • thym: thyme, Thymus vulgaris
    • tian: shallow ceramic baking vessel, or a dish prepared gratinée in a tian
    • timbale: various foodstuffs, bound with a sauce--such as Bèchamel--or egg or custard, and baked in a mold in the form of a tapered drum
    • tisane: an infusion, herbal or floral tea
    • tomate: tomato (e.g., tomate farci, stuffed tomato)
    • tomme: molded raw cheese (e.g., tomme d'Arles; tomme de Savoie, pressed cow's milk cheese from Savoie)
    • Toulouse: coarse garlic sausage
    • tourage: folding technique used to produce the layers in puff pastry
    • tournant: in the Brigade system, the chef who relieves people at various stations
    • tournedo: thick cross-section of beef tenderloin
    • tournèe: turned uniformly sized peeled and carved potatoes or vegetables--usually oblong
    • tourte: pie, covered (e.g., tourton, vegetable pie, without pastry)
    • travallier: to work or knead
    • tronçonner: to cut into sections or lengths
    • trou Normande: used, like sorbet, as an intermezzo; a traditional trou normande was a bottle of Calvados (from Normandy) encased in a small block of ice
    • truffe: truffle (e.g., truffe noire d'hiver, winter black truffle), Tuber melanosporum
    • truite: trout (usually Brown Trout, Salmo trutta)
    • tuile: a thin crisp cookie that is formed, while still hot, into a slightly curved shape (also tulipe, similar to a tuile, but shaped like a flower by gathering the sides and allowing it to cool in a cup)
  • u
    • unilatéral: one-sided (e.g., saumon à l'unilatéral, salmon grilled only on one side)
    • usé: worn, red wine that has faded in quality because of age
  • v
    • vacherin: a cake formed of rings of baked meringue or almond paste, filled with créme chantilly, ice cream and/or fruit
    • vanner: to stir sauces to avoid the formation of a skin
    • vapeur: steam
    • veau: veal
    • vermicelles: vermicelli
    • Véronique: applied to dishes containing, or garnished with, white grapes
    • verveine: vervain, lemon verbena, Aloysia triphylla
    • viande: meat (e.g., viande en dés, meat chunks)
    • vierge: virgin (e.g., huile d'olive vierge, pure cold-pressed olive oil)
    • vieux: old, aged
    • vin: wine
    • vinaigre: vinegar (also vinaigrette, an oil and vinegar emulsion)
    • violet: sea-squirt, a barnacle-like shellfish (also oursin violet, sea-urchin, Paracentrotus lividus), Microcosmus sulcatus
    • violette de Tourette: candied flower
    • vol-au-vent: a puff pastry shell, in the form of a cooking pot, containing a mixture of foods in a cream sauce
  • y
    • yaourt: yogurt
  • z
    • zeste: fragrant peel of lemon or orange

Friends & Co- conspirators

Difficult as it is to believe, some people occasionally find our company to be not wholly objectionable.

The Libro-Emporium

Doorstops and lavatory entertainments abound in our book store.